Photo by James L. Reveal
Rudbeckia occidentalis Nutt.
Course perennial, characterized by dark brown or black cylindrical heads, ringed with gold, with no ray flower and has a rank unpleasant odors. It features a dome-shaped, black center cone ringed with gold and subtended by narrow, bright green sepals radiating outward from the cone base. Has lance-shaped dark green leaves. Flowers in June-July with sporadic continued bloom throughout the remaining part of the summer. Found on stream banks, thickets and open woods, from foothills to middle elevations. Easily grown in average, dry to medium wet, well-drained soils in full sun. Tolerates drought and part shade, but best flowering should occur in full sun. Nuttall reported finding the plant from the Rocky Mountains through to Oregon.